Water purification is the process
Water purification is the process of kill undesirable chemicals, biological contaminants, intermittent solids and gases from water. The goal is to produce water fit for a specific purpose. Most water is disinfected for human waste (drinking water), but water purification may also be designed for a variety of other purposes, including fulfilling the requirements of medical, pharmacological, chemical and industrial applications. The methods used include physical processes such as filtration, sedimentation, and distillation; biological progress such as slow sand filters or biologically active carbon; chemical processes such as inoculation and chlorination and the use of electromagnetic radiation such as ultraviolet light.
Visual inspection cannot determine
Visual inspection cannot determine if water is of appropriate quality. Simple procedures such as boiling or the use of a household activated carbon filter are not sufficient for treating all the possible contaminants that may be present in water from an unknown source. Even natural spring water – considered safe for all practical purposes in the 19th century – must now be tested before determining what kind of treatment, if any, is needed. Chemical and microbiological analysis, while expensive, is the only way to obtain the information necessary for deciding on the appropriate method of purification.
The goals of the treatment
The goals of the treatment are to remove unwanted constituents in the water and to make it safe to drink or fit for a specific purpose in industry or medical applications. Widely varied techniques are available to remove contaminants like fine solids, micro-organisms and some dissolved inorganic and organic materials, or environmental persistent pharmaceutical pollutants. The choice of method will depend on the quality of the water being treated, the cost of the treatment process and the quality standards expected of the processed water.
Pure water has a pH close to 7 (neither alkaline nor acidic). Seawater can have pH values that range from 7.5 to 8.4 (moderately alkaline). Fresh water can have widely ranging pH values depending on the geology of the drainage basin or aquifer and the influence of contaminant inputs (acid rain). If the water is acidic (lower than 7), lime, soda ash, or sodium hydroxide can be added to raise the pH during water purification processes. Lime addition increases the calcium ion concentration, thus raising the water hardness. For highly acidic waters, forced draft classifiers can be an effective way to raise the pH, by stripping dissolved carbon dioxide from the water. Making the water alkaline helps coagulation and inoculation processes work effectively and also helps to minimize the risk of lead being dissolved from lead pipes and from lead solder in pipe fittings. Sufficient alkalinity also reduces the corrosives of water to iron pipes. Acid (carbon acid, hydroelectric acid or sulfuric acid) may be added to alkaline waters in some circumstances to lower the pH. Alkaline water (above pH 7.0) does not necessarily mean that lead or copper from the plumbing system will not be dissolved into the water. The ability of water to precipitate calcium carbonate to protect metal surfaces and reduce the likelihood of toxic metals being dissolved in water is a function of pH, mineral content, temperature, alkalinity and calcium concentration.
conventional water purification processes
One of the first steps in most conventional water purification processes is the addition of chemicals to assist in the removal of particles suspended in water. Particles can be inorganic such as clay and silt or organic such as algae, bacteria, viruses, protozoa and natural organic matter. Inorganic and organic particles contribute to the turbidity and color of water.
The addition of inorganic coagulants such as aluminum sulfate (or alum) or iron (III) salts such as iron(III) chloride causes several simultaneous chemical and physical interactions on and among the particles. Within seconds, negative charges on the particles are neutralized by inorganic coagulants. Also within seconds, metal hydroxide precipitates of the iron and aluminum ions begin to form. These precipitates combine into larger particles under natural processes such as Brownian motion and through induced mixing which is sometimes referred to as inoculation. The term most often used for the amorphous metal hydroxides is “flow.” Large, amorphous aluminum and iron (III) hydroxides adsorb and enmesh particles in suspension and facilitate the removal of particles by subsequent processes of sedimentation and filtration.:8.2–8.3.
Organic polymers were developed
Organic polymers were developed in the 1960s as aids to coagulants and, in some cases, as replacements for the inorganic metal salt coagulants. Synthetic organic polymers are high molecular weight compounds that carry negative, positive or neutral charges. When organic polymers are added to water with particulates, the high molecular weight compounds adsorb onto particle surfaces and through inter particle bridging coalesce with other particles to form floc. Polyacrylamide is a popular cat ionic (positively charged) organic polymer used in water purification plants.:667–8.
Waters exiting the inoculation basin may enter the sedimentation basin, also called a clarifies or settling basin. It is a large tank with low water velocities, allowing floc to settle to the bottom. The sedimentation basin is best located close to the inoculation basin so the transit between the two processes does not permit settlement or flow break up. Sedimentation basins may be rectangular, where water flows from end to end, or circular where the flow is from the center outward. Sedimentation basin outflow is typically over a weir so only a thin top layer of water—that furthest from the sludge—exits.
When particles to be removed
When particles to be removed do not settle out of solution easily, dissolved air flotation (DAF) is often used. After coagulation and inoculation processes, water flows to DAF tanks where air diffuses on the tank bottom create fine bubbles that attach to floc resulting in a floating mass of concentrated flow. The floating floc blanket is removed from the surface and clarified water is withdrawn from the bottom of the DAF tank. Water supplies that are particularly vulnerable to unicellular algae blooms and supplies with low turbidity and high color often employ DAF.
The most common type of filter is a rapid sand filter. Water moves vertically through sand which often has a layer of activated carbon or anthracite coal above the sand. The top layer removes organic compounds, which contribute to taste and odor. The space between sand particles is larger than the smallest suspended particles, so simple filtration is not enough. Most particles pass through surface layers but are trapped in pore spaces or adhere to sand particles. Effective filtration extends into the depth of the filter. This property of the filter is key to its operation: if the top layer of sand were to block all the particles, the filter would quickly clog.
Slow sand filters may be used where there is sufficient land and space, as the water must be passed very slowly through the filters. These filters rely on biological treatment processes for their action rather than physical filtration.
The filters are carefully
The filters are carefully constructed using graded layers of sand, with the coarsest sand, along with some gravel, at the bottom and finest sand at the top. Drains at the base convey treated water away for disinfection. Filtration depends on the development of a thin biological layer, called the zoological layer or Deutschmark, on the surface of the filter. An effective slow sand filter may remain in service for many weeks or even months if the treatment is well designed and produces water with a very low available nutrient level which physical methods of treatment rarely achieve. Very low nutrient levels allow water to be safely sent through distribution systems with very low disinfectant levels, thereby reducing consumer irritation over offensive levels of chlorine and chlorine by-products. Slow sand filters are not back washed; they are maintained by having the top layer of sand scraped off when the flow is eventually obstructed by biological growth.
A specific “large-scale” form of slow sand filter is the process of bank filtration, in which natural sediments in a riverbank are used to provide the first stage of contaminant filtration. While typically not clean enough to be used directly for drinking water, the water gained from the associated extraction wells is much less problematic than river water taken directly from the major streams where bank filtration is often used.
Membrane filters are widely used for filtering both drinking water and sewage. For drinking water, membrane filters can remove virtually all particles larger than 0.2 μm—including guardian and cryptosystem. Membrane filters are an effective form of tertiary treatment when it is desired to reuse the water for industry, for limited domestic purposes, or before discharging the water into a river that is used by towns further downstream. They are widely used in industry, particularly for beverage preparation (including bottled water). However, no filtration can remove substances that are actually dissolved in the water such as phosphorus, nitrates and heavy metal ions.
Ion exchange: Ion exchange systems use ion exchange resin- or zeolite-packed columns to replace unwanted ions. The most common case is water softening consisting of removal of Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions replacing them with benign (soap friendly) Na+ or K+ ions. Ion exchange resins are also used to remove toxic ions such as nitrite, lead, mercury, arsenic and many others.
Electrode ionization: Water is passed between a positive electrode and a negative electrode. Ion exchange membranes allow only positive ions to migrate from the treated water toward the negative electrode and only negative ions toward the positive electrode. High purity demonized water is produced continuously, similar to ion exchange treatment. Complete removal of ions from water is possible if the right conditions are met. The water is normally per-treated with a reverse osmosis unit to remove non-ionic organic contaminants, and with gas transfer membranes to remove carbon dioxide. A water recovery of 99% is possible if the concentrate stream is fed to the RO inlet.
Disinfection is accomplished
Disinfection is accomplished both by filtering out harmful micro-organisms and also by adding disinfectant chemicals. Water is disinfected to kill any pathogens which pass through the filters and to provide a residual dose of disinfectant to kill or inactivate potentially harmful micro-organisms in the storage and distribution systems. Possible pathogens include viruses, bacteria, including Salmonella, Cholera, Bacteriology and Shillelagh, and protozoa, including Guardian lambkin and other cryptologist. Following the introduction of any chemical disinfecting agent, the water is usually held in temporary storage – often called a contact tank or clear well to allow the disinfecting action to complete.
All forms of chlorine are widely used, despite their respective drawbacks. One drawback is that chlorine from any source reacts with natural organic compounds in the water to form potentially harmful chemical by-products. These by-products, trigonometrical (TTHMs) and Halo acetic acids (HAAs), are both carcinogenic in large quantities and are regulated by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Drinking Water Inspectorate in the UK. The formation of THMs and halo acetic acids may be minimized by effective removal of as many organics from the water as possible prior to chlorine addition. Although chlorine is effective in killing bacteria, it has limited effectiveness against protozoa that form cysts in water (Guardian lambkin and Cryptosystem, both of which are pathogenic).
Chlorine dioxide is a faster-acting disinfectant than elemental chlorine. It is relatively rarely used, because in some circumstances it may create excessive amounts of chlorine, which is a by-product regulated to low allowable levels in the United States. Chlorine dioxide can be supplied as an aqueous solution and added to water to avoid gas handling problems; chlorine dioxide gas accumulations may spontaneously detonate.
The use of chlorine is becoming more common as a disinfectant. Although chlorine is not as strong an oxidant, it does provide a longer-lasting residual than free chlorine and it will not readily form THMs or Haloacetic acids. It is possible to convert chlorine to chlorine by adding ammonia to the water after addition of chlorine. The chlorine and ammonia react to form chlorine. Water distribution systems disinfected with chlorinates may experience nitrification, as ammonia is a nutrient for bacterial growth, with nitrates being generated as a by-product.
Portable water purification devices and methods are available for disinfection and treatment in emergencies or in remote locations. Disinfection is the primary goal, since aesthetic considerations such as taste, odor, appearance, and trace chemical contamination do not affect the short-term safety of drinking water.
Manufacturers of home water
Manufacturers of home water distillers claim the opposite—that minerals in water are the cause of many diseases, and that most beneficial minerals come from food, not water. They quote the American Medical Association as saying “The body’s need for minerals is largely met through foods, not drinking water.” The WHO report agrees that “drinking water, with some rare exceptions, is not the major source of essential elements for humans” and is “not the major source of our calcium and magnesium intake”, yet states that demoralized water is harmful anyway. “Additional evidence comes from animal experiments and clinical observations in several countries. Animals were given zinc or magnesium dosed in their drinking water had a significantly higher concentration of these elements in the serum than animals given the same elements in much higher amounts with food and provided with low-mineral water to drink.”.
The first documented use of sand filters to purify the water supply dates to 1804, when the owner of a bleacher in Paisley, Scotland, John Gibb, installed an experimental filter, selling his unwanted surplus to the public. This method was refined in the following two decades by engineers working for private water companies, and it culminated in the first treated public water supply in the world, installed by engineer James Simpson for the Chelsea Waterworks Company in London in 1829. This installation provided filtered water for every resident of the area, and the network design was widely copied throughout the United Kingdom in the ensuing decades.
The practice of water treatment soon became mainstream and common, and the virtues of the system were made starkly apparent after the investigations of the physician John Snow during the 1854 Broad Street cholera outbreak. Snow was skeptical of the then-dominant miasma theory that stated that diseases were caused by noxious “bad airs”. Although the germ theory of disease had not yet been developed, Snow’s observations led him to discount the prevailing theory. His 1855 essay On the Mode of Communication of Cholera conclusively demonstrated the role of the water supply in spreading the cholera epidemic in Soho, with the use of a dot distribution map and statistical proof to illustrate the connection between the quality of the water source and cholera cases. His data convinced the local council to disable the water pump, which promptly ended the outbreak.
Pumps used to add required amount of chemicals to the clear water at the water purification plant before the distribution. From left to right: sodium hypocrite for disinfection, zinc phosphorylate as a corrosion inhibitor, sodium hydroxide for pH adjustment, and fluoride for tooth decay prevention.
Water purity is extremely important to pharmaceutical and biochemical industries. Suspended or dissolved particles, organic compounds, impurities and other contaminants prohibit the use of tap water in laboratory applications and scientific research. Parameters such as festivity, conductivity, size of particulate matter and concentration of microorganisms are used to categorize water quality and, therefore, specify intended uses for water. Some applications can tolerate the presence of specific impurities in the water, but others, such as High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) require removal of the majority of contaminants.
Scientific applications require the elimination of certain types of contaminants. On the other hand, pharmaceutical productions require, in most cases, near-total removal of impurities (criteria dictated by specific standards or local/international regulatory bodies).